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A carat is a unit of measurement used to weigh a diamond. One carat is equal to one fifth of a gram (0.2 gram) or 200 mg. One carat is equal to 100 points or 100 cents

Carat weight is the most objective of the 4 C’s of diamonds as it involves no estimates, comparisons or judgements.

visual effect of carat weight on a diamond's appearance seems fairly obvious: the more a diamond weighs, the larger it will look. However, this is not always the case. As most people in the trade already know, cut proportions can also affect the perceived size of a diamond.

Carat weight is directly related to a diamond's value because (all else being equal) larger diamonds are rarer than smaller ones. As a result, larger diamonds cost more per carat than smaller diamonds (e.g., a 2.00 ct diamond of the same quality can cost more than twice the amount of a 1.00 ct diamond).


The colour of a diamond is one of the vital factors influencing the price of diamond. In diamonds, the best colour is no colour at all. Colourless diamonds are extremely rare, hence making them the most sought after. Contrary to common belief, all diamonds are not truly colourless. They actually come in many different colours - commonly faint yellow or brown. But its colourless diamonds, sometimes called white diamonds, which all other shades are judged against. Colourless grade diamonds are the most valuable with exception to some fancy colours which are again very rare and expensive if their colour is natural.

Colourless diamonds allow the maximum refraction of light thus maximising brilliance. In comparison Off White diamonds absorb light hence inhibiting brilliance.

There is now an internationally recognised colour grading scale which starts at D (colourless), and goes down to Z (light yellow). Each letter grade represents a range of colour and is a measure of how noticeable the colour is. Colourless diamonds and diamonds that are yellow or yellowish brown are grouped into the categories shown below


D Absolutely colourless The highest colour grade, which is extremely rare.
E Colourless Only minute traces of colour can be detected by an expert gemmologist.
F Colourless. Slight colour detected by an expert gemmologist, but still considered a "colourless" grade. A high-quality diamond.
G-H Near-colourless Colour noticeable when compared to diamonds of better grades, but these grades offer excellent value.
I-J Near-colourless Colour slightly detectable.
K-M Noticeable colour Light yellow
N-Z Noticeable colour Yell

*   D         E          F          G       H           I            J          K           L         M

These grades do not apply to fancy coloured diamonds-they have their own colour grading standards

D, E or F commands the highest prices because of their rarity. Less than 1% of all diamonds are colourless hence they command a premium . For the untrained and unaided eye, it is very difficult to distinguish between D, E or F colours as they are all colourless with miniscule difference in colour.

They are then followed by the near-colourless (G- H),followed by ( I- J) with G and H being universally most popular. The spectrum then gets a visible yellow hue from (K-R). Colour more intense than (R) is considered fancy.

Fancy Colour

Intensely coloured diamonds are known as "fancies" or fancy coloured diamond. Natural Fancy Colour Diamonds are rare and can be very expensive. It’s said that out of 10,000 normal diamonds one of them would be a fancy colour diamond. The most popular fancy colour diamond is Yellow. Other colours such as Pink, Blue, purple and Red and can be extremely expensive.

Fancy Coloured Diamond Grading

The colour of a fancy coloured diamond is measured differently to a normal diamonds. The grading scale is based on the intensity of the colour. The GIA fancy colour grading scale is: Faint, Very Light, Light, Fancy Light, Fancy, Fancy Intense, Fancy Vivid, Fancy Deep and Fancy Dark


Diamonds contain naturally occurring impurities known as inclusions. They may occur internally in the form of tiny fractures, feathers, clouds or crystals and externally as scratches and fissures. They are caused by trace minerals and other impurities that may be present or by irregularities in the natural process of diamond formation. Factors determining the clarity of diamonds are - number of inclusions, nature of inclusions (e.g., feathers, clouds, knots, colour), location and size of the inclusions

In addition to internal inclusions, surface irregularities are referred to as blemishes. These two categories of imperfections-inclusions (internal) and blemishes (external)-make up clarity.

Inclusions greatly affect the beauty and value of a diamond because they absorb the light rather than allowing it to be reflected back through the front side of the stone. Consequently fewer the imperfections, the rarer and more valuable the diamond.

Diamonds are graded for clarity on the basis of internal and external imperfections present.

Flawless Diamonds

Shows no inclusions or blemishes of any sort when viewed under 10x magnification

IF Diamonds (Internally Flawless)

Shows no inclusion of any sort when viewed under 10x magnification although minor blemishes may be present

VVS1, VVS2 Diamonds (Very Very Slightly Included)

Inclusions almost impossible to detect with the naked eye and barely detectable under 10x magnification.

VS1, VS2 Diamonds (Very Slight)

Inclusions are minute and normally not visible to the unaided eye but can be detected with little effort under a magnifying loupe.

SI1, SI2 Diamonds (Slightly Included)

Inclusions are visible under 10x magnifications, and may possibly be visible with the naked eye.

I1, I2, I3 Diamonds (Included)

Inclusions are clearly visible to the naked eye.

Clarity Facts


  • As the grading decreases the price decreases exponentially. This is because diamonds with greater quality (correspondingly with lesser inclusions) are that much rarer.
  • Along with the type and number of inclusions, their position also makes an impact on the value and brilliance of a diamond.
  • Fortunately diamonds of all clarity grades and prices, including those with eye visible inclusions can look beautiful. It primarily depends on how well they are cut and other factors
  • Contrary to popular belief, higher clarity does not always mean more beautiful. If the inclusions are not visible to the naked eye, a higher clarity does not really improve the appearance of a diamond but rather the rarity and price.


Cut refers to the quality of the proportions, polish and symmetry of a diamond. Of the 4C's, the cut is the aspect most directly influenced by man, whereas the other three C’s are influenced by nature.

Quite often the cut of a diamond is confused with its shape, but it actually is about a diamond's proportions, such as its depth and width and the uniformity of its facets--all characteristics that control brilliance, durability and other features we look for in a diamond.

The brilliance of a diamond depends a lot on its cut. Whatever the shape, a well-cut diamond always reflects better light. Diamonds with perfect colour or clarity also display reduced brilliance if it’s cut poorly.

(Importance of cut)

Diamonds are cut in many shapes but, it is the precision with which facets are polished on to a diamond, which allows it to capture light and release its brilliance and fire.


When a diamond is cut to ideal or proper proportions, light is reflected from one facet to another and then dispersed through the top of the stone. This results in a display of brilliance and fire.

When the cut of a diamond is too shallow, light escapes through the pavilion before it can be reflected.

When the cut of a diamond is too deep, some light escapes through the opposite side of the pavilion.

A polished diamond’s beauty lies in its complex relationship with light: how light strikes the surface, how much enters the diamond, and how, and in what form light returns to your eye.

The result is a display of three attributes. Brightness is the combination of all white light reflecting from the surface and interior of a diamond. Fire is the coloured flashes that can be seen in a diamond. Scintillation describes the sparkle of light you see in a diamond, and the overall pattern of bright and dark areas when you look at a diamond face-up.

A polished diamond’s proportions affect its light performance, which in turn affects its beauty and overall appeal. Diamonds with good proportions optimize the interaction with light, and have good brilliance, fire, and scintillation.

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